Saturday, November 30, 2019

Connex to Metro: 10 years ago today


Exactly 10 years ago Metro Trains Melbourne took over from Connex. 

Connex successfully bid to run half the train network when it was put out to franchise in 1999. However they ended with the lot after National Express walked out in 2002. They had to reunite the network and clear a driver training backlog. All in an environment of deteriorating infrastructure, surging patronage and negligible funding for additional services.

A fancy roof (which is what Southern Cross Station is) was often confused with but does not equal remedial investment in tracks, points, signals and overheads. Some government decisions, such as outer suburban fare cuts, increased pressure on the fragile network. There has been no learning from this; parallels exist with the CBD 'Free' Tram Zone that some politicians now wish to extend

Reliability fell as patronage rose. A race-day debacle and summer meltdowns brought Connex in Melbourne to an end as 'rail fail' became a household term, front-page news and the subject of a parliamentary inquiry. Their name had become toxic and the butt of jokes. Connex lost the franchise to the Hong-Kong led Metro Trains Melbourne group who commenced operation exactly 10 years ago. Here's what I wrote about the new train contracts at the time. 

Where were you when this happened? I was on their first train from Frankston (poor picture below). 


I arrived just in time to see the banners being replaced.

Metro on the right, Connex on the left (click for better view).


Within an hour the job was done.



Meanwhile inside they were setting up their customer information booth.





In the lead-up Metro were busy preening their corporate image. Including making flashy videos of doubtful community benefit. 






Trams also changed. KDR was the successful bidder. This is their video.


For all the talk about dumping incumbent operators, the point that any new arrival would take over 100% of the infrastructure (rotting sleepers, dicky points, dodgy signals), 100% of the rolling stock and 99% of the staff was sometimes lost. Not to mention the dopey car drivers and pedestrians who try to beat boom gates at level crossings. A newspaper report explains how Metro inherited a dog. (There was indeed a real dog named Connex but that's a different story).

Politicians promised improvements "from Day One". Not surprisingly they didn't happen. In fact service got worse for a while. Like an Oaks Day train, the Brumby government lost power, with train service delivery a prominent issue. However from 2011-2012 the pace of timetable reform quickened and reliability recovered most of the ground lost in the disastrous 2003 - 2010 period.

Unfortunately train presentation standards slipped in Metro's early years as graffiti returned to carriages. Metro also had issues with their cleaning contractors who were later accused of underpaying staff. Later Metro realised that they had to 'clean their room' since the parents were returning soon and there was a risk of them being booted out of the house in the looming refranchising. Then train presentation dramatically improved. It's been fairly good since although there remains a need for 'walk through' rubbish removals at terminus stations, especially early weekend mornings after Night Network operates.

My theory is that unless contract management is consistently tight operators start with good intentions but let things go in the middle of their franchise period. Then in the year or two before retendering they panic and rush to make things good so they can demonstrate improvement (people have short memories) and get a chance of winning the next franchising round (preferably with 'value-adding' high-margin extras).


This is a bit like the behaviour of school kids when the teacher leaves the classroom. This flows into another theory I have; the difference between children and adults are exaggerated and it's really not  that much. 'Growing up' and 'reaching maturity' are over-rated. The base needs of politicians, senior bureaucrats and company managers seem little different to that of easily distracted children. Much of what goes on in political, administrative and corporate life reflects this. Eg food/drink, toys/money, applying paint but not fixing the building, doing tricks and not getting caught, ego/branding/corporate networking and wanting to be liked seem to be universal.

Anyway refranchising came around in 2017 for both trains and trams. There seemed less interest than in 2009. Train performance had been turned around and remained better than it was in the last years of Connex/first years of Metro. Both incumbents got their franchises renewed with some changes to conditions.

At the time of writing the rail network is again under pressure with a gradual decline in punctuality for the last six years, and the government  delaying big timetable reforms (next big one planned for 2020). It remains to be seen whether smaller adjustments in the form of (mostly) slower times from next month will arrest the decline in reported punctuality.



Friday, November 29, 2019

Building Melbourne's Useful Network 30: Dallas, Coolaroo and Campbellfield


We've been covering the middle-northern suburbs lately. Last week was the Glenroy, Hadfield, Coburg area. Today we'll leap the Western Ring Road to look at Dallas, Coolaroo and Campbellfield. This is you classic postwar industrial suburb that grew around car manufacture and allied industries.

In Broadmeadows case it was Ford whose plant was near Upfield station. This was the 1950s and suburb zoning and development was not as autopic as it would become within a few decades. Hence it was possible for people to live in Dallas and walk or cycle to Ford. Meanwhile housewives would have been able to walk to shops on Barry Rd or Blair St and children to the area's once numerous schools.

Such walkable accessibility would not be available in a 2019 development.

Today's factory or distribution centre would have been built well off its main road in the middle of an industrial estate made remote from housing by restrictive zoning, absence of grid streets and uncrossable roundabouted roads. Large turning radii would mean vehicles can turn with speed and convey the message that they need not give way to pedestrians. Shops are in fewer, larger clusters, set behind parking, while schools are bigger and further apart than they used to be. You can see all this in newer areas like Tarneit/Truganina where although housing is creeping towards the industrial area walkability between the two is not provided for. 

Getting back to 'Broady', the area has been known as a 'Struggletown' but up until the 1970s the vast majority of households had at least one breadwinner. It has borne the full effect of post-1973 economic change including lower tariffs, the end of 'full employment', the shift to a services economy, outsourcing, international competition and the weakening of labour market protections.

The Button car plan of the 1980s sought to reduce the number of car models produced in Australia to make production runs more efficient while reducing industry protection. The free-trade sentiment at the time led to falling tariffs in other fields from about 1990. This, combined with the recession which hit Victoria harder than any other state, deeply affected industrial sector employment.

The Broadmeadows area was in the front line and never fully recovered. Today it has some of Melbourne's lowest median incomes and highest jobless rates, having degentrified from a lower-middle to a very low employment and income area.  This is why I discuss the area in my submission to the disadvantaged jobseekers inquiry.


Existing Useful Network

I explain the Useful Network concept here. It's those routes that are frequent enough and run over long enough hours to be useful for many trips. I've specified a 20 minute frequency on weekdays and 7 day service until 9pm. In other words the coloured lines on the Melbourne Public Transport Frequent Network map with the 20 minute frequency selected. This map shows the sparsity of Useful Network routes in most fringe areas, despite their sometimes high population densities. 

Below is the existing Useful Network for the Dallas/Coolaroo area. It's fairly sparse. Trains on the Craigieburn and Upfield lines skirt the borders of these suburbs. East of the Craigieburn line the three Useful Network routes are two SmartBus orbitals and one regular route (540). This runs from Broadmeadows to Upfield. It does a loop in Coolaroo. Before Coolaroo Station was built the 540 was the only public transport in the area that did not necessitate crossing the railway and busy Pascoe Vale Road. Route 540 operates every 20 minutes on weekdays and 40 minutes on weekends with a 9pm finish. 


The area around Sydney Rd is a transport 'black hole' with no or infrequent service. This is despite it having substantial residential and workforce populations. Service is particularly low in the Campbellfield area. Even on parts of Sydney Rd, traffic volumes and the lack of pedestrian lights  at human-scale intervals make its stops effectively inaccessible.  


The map below shows all routes. Notable routes not on the map above are the 532 up Sydney Rd (every 30 minutes, unharmonised with trains) and the pair that attempts to serve the residential part of Campbellfield (531 and 538). They run 5 and 6 days per week, with no Sunday service.  The main overlaps in this network both concern the 538; that with the 531 in Campbellfield and that with the 902 along Camp Rd. 


The area's main transport network change has been the opening of Coolaroo Station about 10 years ago. Buses however have not changed significantly with the 1992 map below similar to 2019's network. The main change is that the 560 got incorporated into the 902 and the 319, which was a substitute for when the Upfield train wasn't running (the line then being a part-time service) got deleted when train services were upgraded. 


Patronage of existing routes

The busiest local route is the 532 with 35 boardings per bus hour on weekdays. This exceeds the 26 boardings per hour of the 540, the next busiest route. 532's result is amazing given much of its catchment is so pedestrian hostile. On paper it provides a handy connection from the Upfield line to the Craigieburn line but in practice its effectiveness is limited by its 30 minute frequency not meeting trains every 20 minutes. While the quieter route, 540 has a 20 minute off-peak service as opposed to  the 30 minutes of the 532.  

Both 531 and 538 are quiet, with weekday boardings of 11 and 14 passengers per hour. Reasons for these low numbers include the considerable overlap that these routes have with others in the Fawkner and Campbellfield area. 

Similar patronage patterns apply on weekends with 532 again being busier than 540. 532 is once again unharmonised with trains on Saturday, with its 30 minute frequency not providing reliable connections. Sunday service meanwhile is hourly, a lower service than the 540 which is every 40 minutes on both weekend days.

Existing bus resources

I estimate that the area's local bus network requires 7 buses, distributed as follows: 

531 = 1 bus (1 hour return trip, every hour) - Broadmeadows Bus
532 = 3 buses (1 hour return trip, every 20 min in peak) - Broadmeadows Bus
538 = 1 bus (40 min return trip, every 40 min) - Dysons
540 = 2 buses (40 min return trip, every 20 min) - Dysons

The area's local bus review

About 10 years the government commissioned a bus network review covering the area (Hume/Moreland).

Key recommendations included a bus up Widford St (to replace the duplicative 538 along Camp Rd), connections into the industrial area east of Sydney Rd and a simplification of services in the residential area of Campbellfield.

None of this got implemented. The entire area is the ultra-safe Labor seat of Broadmeadows held by Frank McGuire MP.

Revised Useful Network

Presented below is a revised network. It's greatly simplified compared to now with just two routes: 531 and 532. 


Route 532 becomes the area's main road route with a weekday service boost from every 30 to every 20 minutes to harmonise with trains. It's the only bus serving many jobs on the Sydney Rd corridor and connects Craigieburn with Upfield. In addition it provides a strong service through central Dallas. On weekends Route 532 could run every 40 minutes, harmonising with trains on Saturday and providing improved service on Sunday compared to the current timetable. An option exists to add one or two short Broadmeadows - Upfield trips around 10pm and on early Sunday morning to improve operating hours in high need areas remote from stations. 

Route 531 (thinner line) is the other route. It is amalgamated with Route 540 and replaces Route 538. A basic 40 minute frequency with 7 day service is suggested. Peak frequency could be every 30 minutes. Both would be a frequency increase over the current hourly service. 

The upgrade is necessary to compensate for the removal of Route 538 (every 40 minutes) from the residential portion of Campbellfield east of Sydney Rd. This is still fewer buses per hour on weekdays for the area. However service overall is increased with evening, Saturday afternoon and Sunday buses introduced. 531 morning peak service to Upfield is vastly improved, going from every 120 min to every 30 min. And the amalgamation with Route 540 means that the single seat ride to Broadmeadows (currently available on Route 538) is retained. It's less direct but the improved operating hours and 7 day service more than compensates.


What happens to the 540, currently the area's main Useful Network route? It gets incorporated into the extended Route 531 mostly every 40 minutes. This change does not greatly reduce Useful Network coverage because 540 mostly overlaps with Route 532 that gets a service upgrade. Most of the areas where it doesn't overlap are within the 800 metre catchment of Coolaroo Station, which wasn't built when Route 540 was last scheduled. Because both 531 and 532 get a 40 minute service on weekends, it may be possible to stagger their times to provide an 'every train' connection from Upfield. 

The Olsen Place shops on Widford St south of Camp Rd doesn't have a bus going right past it. All it has is the part-time Monday to Saturday morning 538 on Graham St. This would be replaced by the extended Route 531 which provides new 7-day connections to Broadmeadows and Glenroy. It is unlikely that many will need to go to Campbellfield but if they wish to they can remain on the bus.  


A Widford St bus connecting the area to Broadmeadows and preferably Glenroy is essential for coverage but it doesn't have to be the 531. Another network option could terminate the 531 at Broadmeadows and have Widford St served by an extended route from the Glenroy, Hadfield or Coburg area as discussed last week. This would improve the network's legibility as 531 would be less direct. And a southern extension to Coburg would make it more useful for more trips. 

Paying for it

How much would this network cost? It's not much. The number of buses required appears the same as what's used now. The main difference is that the buses are being worked harder so there's some higher fuel, labour and maintenance costs. However fare revenue should be higher due to the network being more useful.

Here's how buses could be allocated between the revised routes.

531 = 4 buses (2 hours return trip, every 30 min peak, 40 min off-peak and weekends)
532 = 3 buses (1 hour return trip, every 20 min all day weekdays, 40 min weekends) 
538 = 0 buses (replaced by extended 531)
540 = 0 buses (merged into extended 531)

Given that one operator currently runs three buses and the other four and both routes gain increased bus hours (532 mainly interpeak and 531 mainly weekends) it should be possible to arrive at a fair arrangement where both gain. 

Loose ends

The above has sought to expand the 20 minute frequency Useful Network to more local people and jobs without needing to buy more buses. However there are two key things that the above network leaves aside.

The first is a residential area coverage gap south of Geach St. Parts are walkable to Upfield Station (if you count 800m as acceptable). However it's a low income area and bus access to local destinations is limited. 


I considered the possibility of diverting Route 532 through the area but this would reduce frequency in areas that currently have the 540 every 20 minutes. Other possibilities would require additional routes and buses. 

The second omission is lack of connections to jobs east of Sydney Rd. The likely solution is an industrial-type route from Roxburgh Park to Upfield and/or Broadmeadows. This could potentially serve the Geach St area mentioned above. Extending an existing route from Roxburgh Park (eg 544) could provide some residents with a direct bus to their workplace.


Conclusion

What do you think about this network? Is swapping the highest service route from the 540 to the 532 a good idea? And do you like the extension of 7 day service to all routes? Please share your thoughts in the comments below. 

PS: An index to other useful networks is here. 





Tuesday, November 26, 2019

Timetable Tuesday #50: Index to them all


This week I'll take a break and present an index of Timetable Tuesday items covered so far.

I'll update this post each week with links to future Timetable Tuesday items.

1. 609
2. 800
3. 681
4. 788
5. 558
6. 823
7. 506
8. Evening Metro train services 1975 vs 2019
9. 733
10. 553
11. 82 tram
12. 201 768 (Deakin Uni shuttles)
13. 566
14. Sunday morning Metro train services
15. 279
16. 410
17. 556
18. 420
19. 513
20. Weeknight Metro train services
21. 736
22. 280 282 Manningham Mover
23. 414
24. 460
25. 844
26. 504
27. 627 822
28. 745
29. 600 922 923
30. Learning from Perth's train timetable revolution
31. 526
32. 624
33. 271
34. 538
35. 673
36. Thirteen bus routes that most deserve Sunday service
37. 685
38. 302 304
39. 561
40. 503
41. 582
42. 777
43. 695 695F
44. 664
45. 216 219 220 reform and new 429 603 604
46. 700 Chadstone shuttle
47. 512
48. 580
49. 475
50. INDEX (continually updated)
51. 456 along Ballarat Rd
52. 559
53. 525
54. 431
55. Hot waits - where summer timetable cuts make catching buses a misery
56. 699
57. 577
58. Thirteen bus routes that most deserve Saturday service
59. Six places where 2am Sunday service is better than 2pm Sunday service
60. 704
61. Belgrave/Lilydale line
62. 770 771
63. 706
64. 680
65. 380
66. 821
67. 925
68. 293
69. 232
70. Bingo buses
71. 787
72. 432
73. 843 845 861 (new)
74. Flexible route buses (Telebus and 490)
75. Mornington Peninsula community bus network
76. Where are the non-train harmonised bus routes?
77. 694
78. 460 462 463 476 (timetable change)
79. 740
80. The 7 ages of Melbourne's buses (1950 - )
81. How Perth makes bus reform work (frequent Route 915)
82. 888 889 (proposed)
83. The Metro train timetable that never was
84. Victoria's most complex city bus network - Wodonga
85. 270
86. COVID-19 timetables
87. 508

PS: An index to the Friday Building Melbourne's Useful Network series is here.


Sunday, November 24, 2019

Move where you won't regret: 10 transport tips for homebuyers and tenants


Last weekend The Age's Domain published a ranking of Melbourne's most liveable suburbs

Public transport was one of its measures. However it wasn't very useful in the way it was done. 

For example there was a bias towards being near all three modes with no assessment of whether routes go to useful places, their frequency or reliability. Some suburbs can be large with parts distant from useful service so comments made for the centre of the suburb may not relate to its outskirts. While talking about suburbs makes easy media fodder, it's better to do what Walkscore and Transitscore do and allow lookups of specific addresses.  And some results can be plain quirky, such as comments to the effect that East Melbourne was marked down for buses (it's a small suburb that has Melbourne's busiest bus corridor on its northern boundary). 

1. Frequency is freedom

If you wish to really see what areas have the best public transport the best starting point is my frequent network maps. Depending on the quality of service you are after you can choose between every 10, every 15 and every 20 minutes. High frequencies provide the best flexibility if your travel plans change and enable connectivity if your trip needs a change, such as between train and bus.

Use menu buttons to switch between frequencies and which modes you wish to show (start with train, tram and bus). Clicking on individual routes gives further information such as frequencies by day. Maps are available for weekdays, Saturdays and Sundays. If you value 7 day frequent service then use the Sunday map; weekdays and Saturdays will be better (with very few exceptions like trains past Ringwood). 

As a rough guide, trams offer frequent service over long hours, trains semi-frequent service over long hours and buses varying service over shorter hours. V/Line trains have quite good operating hours but limited frequency. If you really value transit access locate near the junction of several frequent and semi-frequent routes so that good service is available in multiple directions. This greatly increases the range of trips convenient by public transport.


2. Check the after 10pm map

Trains and trams operate until midnight but most bus routes finish around 9pm or earlier. Especially on Sundays when only a few are still running at 10pm. See my after 10pm maps for what part of the network runs then and check the frequencies available if service at these times is important.


If you're a night owl locate on one of the six Night Network tram routes that offer a 24 hour weekend service. Being near a Metro train station is the second-best option though as Night Network trains run only hourly. Night Network buses run in some areas but operating hours vary and routes may change (given some are quite poorly used).

3. Consider walkability

Station car parks can fill up early. Buses aren't always frequent or well-connected. So there's much to be said for being able to walk to a station.

Also consider walking access to shops and other services you'll be frequently using. It helps greatly if you are in an area where facilities (even those like letter boxes and ATMs) are clustered around transport interchanges rather than dispersed. This allows you to efficiently do a lot on foot and public transport with minimal waiting and interchanging. Suburbs established before WWII are the best for this. Newer ones, including those nominally with town centres clustered around stations such as Williams Landing, aren't as good as human scale access plays second fiddle to car circulation and parking. Older areas, ranked as our most prestigious, liveable and walkable suburbs, would not be allowed to have been built today due to current restrictive minimum parking and road design rules.

Just because something is close as the crow flies does not mean that it is walkable. Street patterns can restrict easy access. As can busy road that lack closely spaced signalised crossings.

Large roundabouts are bad news for pedestrians. If a roundabout has to be large it means there must be a wide road with lots of traffic. If there is a lot of traffic it means there will be few gaps between cars to easily and safely cross. Avoid suburbs with large roundabouts if you intend to walk anywhere.

At the very least visit them during busy times to assess traffic volumes. And if it's an outer area that's not fully developed factor in increased traffic. Busy roundabouts do eventually get replaced with signals but you could be waiting years. Walking is the transport mode that receives least consideration from road construction authorities who live to maximise car traffic throughput and design infrastructure accordingly.



4. Wise up to train tricks

You might think that if you choose a house that's walking distance to a station you've got it made. Especially if your job is in or near the CBD. 

However service frequency, speed, reliability and comfort vary across the network. Some of its quirks, like the inconsistent patterns of the City Loop and transposals at Flinders St, trip people up.  

Timetables are rigged against the west and north due to the historically busier lines (and marginal seats) being in the south and east where the highest service levels generally remain. Short lines like Upfield aren't particularly frequent during peak periods, and in Alamein, Altona and Williamstown's case, operate at a lower frequency during peak than interpeak. 

Low frequency means that if a train is cancelled it's a longer wait to the next one. It can also mean delays when you can't easily control your departure from work or arrival at the station from a connecting service. 

Beware of moving beyond rail junctions, especially if you travel off-peak. Frequencies beyond junctions like Dandenong and Ringwood typically halve, with Belgrave and Lilydale down to a half-hourly off-peak service. Victoria enjoys Australia's highest regional train frequencies but Melbourne has a poorer record than Sydney and Perth on most of its suburban lines. 

Some lines like Sunbury and Hurstbridge don't have junctions but terminate a lot of their trains part way along it. If you value consistently high frequency on those lines avoid moving further out than Watergardens and Greensborough. And avoid the 'Cinderella' Stony Point line. Anyone who hopes to use it for commuting is a masochist; the last train on all but a Friday leaves Frankston at an unsuitably early time and you will often be relying on local parallel buses. 

Train services can look good on paper but may be crowded and/or unreliable. Disruptions can disproportionately affect parts of some lines. Particularly outer portions where single line sections limit the ability to recover from a disruptions. Trains may be turned back before they reach the end of the line, resulting in cancellations for those near the end. In other cases trains may be routed to bypass your station. Avoid single line sections if you want reliable trains. More here. The less reliable lines have Facebook groups where you can read commuters' tales of woe.

Not all stations on a line are equal. Some are served by express services while others are not. Expresses don't always save a lot of time but can add frequency which is nice. In some cases you are better off to move further out (where there are express trains and land is cheaper) than closer in where there are no express trains and/or morning services are more crowded when you board.

Another (admittedly minor) consideration is that it can be handy to live where trains can terminate. This may give you more trains where trains start from there. On the Frankston line this includes stations like Caulfield, Moorabbin and Mordialloc. When lines are disrupted and substitute buses are run you might be able to get express buses that end up being quicker than the train services they replace.


5. End to end travel time is more important than speed

Land prices fall with distance from the CBD. You get more land for a given budget the further out you go. If you grow things, raise animals or just want a country-ish life a move to a peri-urban location could seem attractive.

Especially if you're near a fast regional train line. Imagine! Seated, you're zooming past straphangers having to endure stops at little stations. You've travelled 30km in the time your work colleagues have barely gone 5km on the tram. Yes, your in-train commute might indeed be faster than others despite their proximity to town.

Insanely low fares for daily commuters are another benefit. Exurban, mostly high-income, train commuters may moan about the service but won't tell you about the lurks they get with myki pass. They pay a pittance per kilometre travelled with the taxpayer heavily subsidising their lifestyle choice. This compares with (often lower income) occasional travellers who get slugged for travel beyond Zone 2 due to much higher myki money fares (see fares tables if you don't believe).

Then there's V/Line train travel within Zone 2. V/Line is now predominantly a commuter network serving huge growing populations in Melbourne's north and west that lack an electrified (Metro) service.  Example stations include Caroline Springs, Wyndham Vale and Tarneit.

If regional or peri-urban living and commuting is your thing consider a few other things before signing on the dotted line.

Regional trains are great if you happen to work near Southern Cross Station. Otherwise your commute may have complications. As much time could be spent waiting or on connecting services as on your 'fast' regional train service. Regional trains perform well for in-train travel but waiting can blow out overall travel time. And its the latter that's most important.

The limited versatility of the City Loop then really becomes apparent; for example did you know that one can't get direct trains to Southern Cross or Flinders Street from Flagstaff, Melbourne Central or Parliament in the afternoons? Also V/Line stopping patterns can be unhelpful for certain trips, for example Bendigo trains don't stop at Sunshine while Ballarat trains do.

Things can get complicated if you have to stay back or have an after-work function. Delays due to disruptions can be serious as, unlike in middle suburbs, you probably can't get a train on another line and a bus across. Taxi fares are super-expensive and, since you live so far out, there is less likely to be a work colleague who could drop you home.

Though not current, these maps from Esri Australia can be helpful if you work near Flinders St Station.


Yes, the fares might be cheap. But is the extra time of peri-urban living in commuting and (potentially) looking after an acreage or small farm worth it? It is for some but not for others who, after a few years, sell up and move back into town. 

6. Eschew the slow tram

Trams excel for their frequency compared to other modes. Except on Sundays they are never less frequent than every 20 minutes (versus 30 or 40 minutes for trains). However most of our trams run on roads shared with cars and are amongst the world's slowest. Route 75 is not much less than 90 minutes in the morning peak from Vermont South to Docklands, for example. Most cyclist commuters live near trams but save time riding.

Unless you travel when few others do a location near the end of a tram line might give you an hour commute - similar to that experienced by those double the distance away. You might get a seat on the way in but possibly not on the way home. Check local area maps; sometimes you can speed travel by changing to a train part way along your tram route.

7. Beware the infrequent bus

The online map you use may have a little bus symbol right near where you're planning to buy. But don't assume it's a useful service. The typical outer suburban Melbourne bus runs approximately every 40 minutes until 9pm. Some outer areas have had decades with even less service. New areas may get a bus but it's only a token service with one departure per day like Route 511 to Mandalay Estate.

If public transport access is a priority your housing choice will probably need to be in an established area with developed services in several directions. Even then check timetables since there is little relationship between main road corridors that 'ought' to have frequent service and those that do. For example parts of Nepean Hwy away from trains only gets hourly weekday buses and nothing on weekends (despite trams closer in being every 12 min). Weekday service is better on Princes Hwy but weekend service is sparse. Other areas have better frequencies but buses routinely miss trains. This is widespread in north-east suburbs like Reservoir, Lalor, Rosanna and Greensborough where buses every 22 to 24 minutes miss trains every 20 minutes.

Melbourne peak bus service levels have generally been mediocre since big cuts in 1990/91. However good service survived on a few corridors, like Buckley St Essendon. Areas like Doncaster now have quite a dense network of frequent buses, at least on weekdays. And there's fast travel to the CBD via the Eastern Freeway. Check evening and weekend timetables though as bus service typically falls off faster than train and tram service at these times.


8. Avoid dependence on one route or line

Being on a rail line is good but can leave you vulnerable to disruptions if it's the only way home. Even the best rail systems have to be occasionally shut down for maintenance work. Buses will be planned though travel times will usually be longer. A regular route option might be quicker, but only if you're in an area where it's available.

Then there's unplanned disruptions, due to level crossing crashes, wire theft, or faults in the network's very fragile points and signals. Such disruptions can leave you stranded, or at best, waiting around for replacement buses (along with hundreds of others).

Aim to live where there are multiple transport options. In inner suburbs this might mean being close to both train and tram lines. In the 10 - 30km ring choose areas with good bus connections with trains on lines either side. Ideally this should be a direct and frequent long-hours service such as a SmartBus orbital. Failing that even a bus every 20 minutes, such as identified on the Frequent Network Map, is better than indefinite waits for rail replacement services.

Some places further out can be more accessible than those closer in. For example the Werribee area has two train lines: Werribee and Geelong. Buses operate on direct routes between the two at reasonable frequencies. Hence you have two lines available if you live in between.

In contrast Point Cook's feeder buses only run to the Werribee line. Sunbury is similarly isolated with the only non-train connections with the rest of the metropolitan area being the very infrequent 479 and 483 buses. Melton, Pakenham and especially Geelong are also very vulnerable.


9. Don't believe promises

Developer ads might promise stations, trains and buses are coming soon to their estate. Don't believe them. They're not paying. The decision to build lines and run buses is wholly that of state government. Local governments and their mayors can do nothing but lobby.

Advocacy should not be confused with action. Services can lag development by 10 years or more. In some cases promised lines or stations never get built. If you want transport only buy where it's already there or there's substantial evidence that it's under construction. Even then service quality can be an unknown quantity as the existence of a line or station does not guarantee a frequent service.


10. Do your research!

No one else will do it for you. Check maps to see if there are convenient routes near where you wish to settle. See that their timetables are adequate. Not just commuting times but earlier, later and on weekends. Some timetables have quirks that mean they lack service at times you'd expect them to operate.  Also try commutes yourself to check crowding and reliability before making a decision.

Have more transport tips for home-makers? Why not leave them in the comments below?

Friday, November 22, 2019

Building Melbourne's Useful Network 29: Coburg Hadfield Glenroy

Last week we introduced the 904 Murray Rd Megabus from Coburg to Heidelberg. Aimed to be at zero cost it would greatly simplify bus services across Melbourne's north.

But it did leave some loose ends in the Glenroy, Hadfield and Coburg areas. Especially Bell St. It would be desirable to extend the 904's 10 minute service along Bell St westward to at least Pascoe Vale South. However you wouldn't do this upgrade unless you did something about the large number of parallel bus routes on Bell St west of Coburg as service would then be excessive. 

Existing Useful Network

I explain the Useful Network concept here. It's those routes that are frequent enough and run over long enough hours to be useful for many trips. I've specified a 20 minute frequency on weekdays and 7 day service until 9pm. In other words the coloured lines on the Melbourne Public Transport Frequent Network map with the 20 minute frequency selected. This map shows the sparsity of Useful Network routes in most fringe areas, despite their sometimes high population densities. 

Below is the existing Useful Network for the Coburg/Hadfield Glenroy area. It's sparse in the north with no strong east-west routes connecting Hadfield with Glenroy. Neither does Hadfield have a north-south connection from Broadmeadows despite this having a large shopping centre, being a civic hub and having two orbital SmartBuses (including one to Melbourne Airport). Route 513 terminate at Glenroy while the 527 has a weak terminus at Gowrie Station. 

In the south the Useful Network is quite dense. It includes several overlaps on Bell St. One can see the rationale behind this as that's where the 58 tram stops. However network changes in the last 10 years have added no less than two routes to Bell St (903 and 561) to the potential exclusion of  improvements in less served areas. In both cases existing routes neither simplified nor rerouted when these new services were added. You can compare today's network against previous years (going back to 1971) here


Another historical remnant can be found in the service levels. The three main routes (513, 527 and 561) operate to minimum standards as regards span of hours. However weekend frequencies vary. For example 527 operates every 20 minutes on Saturdays but has only a 40 to 60 minute frequency on Sunday. Whereas the other two have a flat 40 minute frequency on both weekend days.

Below is the PTV map with all routes. Routes operating at lesser frequencies (typically every 30 or 40 minutes) include the well-used 536 across from Glenroy and the 534 from Glenroy to Coburg. 


Route 534 has very little unique coverage, especially in the south. 

Route 536 has a lot of unique coverage. It serves areas furthest from train stations. It's also a very productive route. However it has limited operating hours and no Sunday service since the 1990-91 cuts. For these reasons I rank it as the second highest priority bus route that needs Sunday service in all of Melbourne

Route 536  has a deviation taken by every second trip. This lessens the frequency on each portion.  536's 30 minute weekday service also makes the route incompatible with trains on both the Craigieburn and Upfield lines which operate every 20 minutes.  

50 years or 60 years ago there wasn't much at what we would now consider central Broadmeadows. Westmeadows was the original pre-railway settlement.  Coburg and Glenroy were well established with postwar housing spreading into Hadfield. Ford had established near Upfield station with housing and local shops at Dallas. Housing had spread outwards to Coolaroo by the 1970s, Meadow Heights by the 1980s and Roxburgh Park by the 1990s. 

Local plans envisaged Broadmeadows as a major town centre. Civic facilities and a new shopping centre were built. However the local bus network reflects pre-1960s patterns. For example there is no bus connection from Broadmeadows to Hadfield and then Coburg. Buses are either north of the ring road or south of it, never north-south even though a road connection is available and routes like 527 and 534 that could push further north have either weak (Gowrie) or moderate (Glenroy) sized centres as termini.  

All these factors will be considered later when reviewing the area's local network. The area is mostly in the seat of Pascoe Vale held by Lizzie Blandthorn MP. 


Revised Useful Network

Instead of presenting one suggested network, I'll present three. Each has their pros and cons. Please let me know in the comments which you prefer and why.



Revised Network A (above) involves the least change. Routes 513, 527 and 561 remain the main routes, with each operating every 20 minutes on weekdays. However the network is made simpler with some routes straightened and simplified. 

Most striking are the changes in the south with more frequent routes are put onto main roads. For example, instead of eastern Gaffney St having less service than O'Hea St the service levels are swapped around. This allows Route 561 to be straightened with a direct alignment from Pascoe Vale to Batman before going via Coburg. Batman gains a better feeder bus service. And because there's a simple direct route between there and Pascoe Vale, afternoon commuters can catch either an Upfield or Craigieburn train for the 561 bus home. Building up this portion of 561 as a feeder should increase its patronage compared to now. 

O'Hea would retain a service with the rerouted 534. The 527 that was there moves onto Bell St. This causes an overlap with other routes (513 and 903). However it's not more than now because the 561 is no longer there. 

The northern ends of the 513 and 527 are unchanged. However 536 is changed. Its alignment might be seen as being slightly less direct. However it is consistent. It needs longer operating hours and Sunday service. Route 536 is extremely productive and justifies an upgrade to every 20 minutes which would also harmonise it with train services. However extra bus resources would be required. 

The map shows Route 534 extended to Broadmeadows to provide a new Coburg via Hadfield connection. Like 536 it operates every 30 minutes. It might be possible to do this extension if its frequency was reduced to every 40 minutes. The extension may not however be popular unless it went closer to Glenroy Station (one of the route's busiest stops). A less radical form of this network would leave the 534 terminating at Glenroy. 

534 is basically a fill-in service that serves areas away from the more frequent routes. Its existence allows other routes to be made more direct. 

Route 542 is on neither this nor the next two maps. It is not well used and parts of its catchment are quite near stations. However it has unique coverage west of Glenroy and street layout west of Jacana makes walking difficult. Today's item proposes no change to it. 

How much will Revised Network A cost? The answer is approximately nothing in its cheapest form. Swapping the 527, 534 and 561 in the south shouldn't cost anything. 

Extra costs would only accrue if the 536 was upgraded and (possibly) if the 534 was extended. However it should be noted that the 538 overlaps the 902 and may not be necessary if (a) coverage is provided on Widford St with the extended 534 and (b) other changes were made to retain a direct service between Campbellfield and Broadmeadows. Because of this you might leave the 534 as is and extend it as part of a Dallas/Coolaroo/Upfield/Campbellfield revision. 



Unlike Network A, revised Network B is very radical. Its rationale was to provide simpler, more frequent but sparser routes while maintaining reasonable coverage. Since it's so cheap you should be able to improve operating hours on its three main routes. For example you might start weekend service 1-2 hours earlier and extend evening service 1 - 2 hours later. This would greatly increase the usefulness of buses, particularly for local trips and suburbs with no trains, eg Hadfield. 

There is less overlap on Bell St. Every route in Hadfield runs every 20 minutes between Glenroy and Coburg. Batman Station gains a stronger feeder service in the 561 but Pascoe Vale and Gowrie lose bus connections from the east and west respectively. 

Coverage is generally maintained. Northern Glenroy is the main concern with walking distances increased compared to the current 536, although Widford St would gain if the 513 is extended to Broadmeadows. These coverage issues could be addressed by realigning 527 off Hilton St to serve Evell and/or Daley St. People in this area lose their bus to Gowrie but the trade-off is the upgraded frequency (30 to 20 minutes) and single seat ride to Bell St and Coburg. 

Route 513 would get a major change in this network. Instead of basically a south-north route to Glenroy it becomes an east-west route via Boundary Rd. Merlynston Station would become a stronger interchange point.  The Pascoe Vale portion of the 513 would instead be served by the rerouted 561, which like the 513 connects to Glenroy and Coburg. 513 could terminate at Glenroy like it currently does or extend to Broadmeadows. The Broadmeadows extension is optional (especially if Route 527 is rerouted via Dalray St) and similar comments as made before regarding a Route 534 Broadmeadows extension apply. 

Speaking of which, this network deletes Route 534. The rerouted 513 and 561 cover most of its catchment. Parts near Coburg North (including O'Hea St) could be served by an extended Route 531 that currently has a weak southern terminus.   

This network extends the 20 minute network to most residential areas. It's quite simple and all routes get strong termini. 513 and 527 have long direct portions. And because it deletes two routes (534 and 536) it should be very economical. The main issues are that it denies buses to Pascoe Vale and Gowrie Stations. Hence, while frequencies are generally better, fewer people get a bus to their nearest station than with Network A.  







This is our third and final option. It's basically a variant of Network B. Comments made before regarding rerouting 527 via Dalray St and terminating Route 513 at Glenroy apply.  The main change compared to Network B is that it retains buses to Pascoe Vale and Gowrie Stations. There's obviously extra bus kilometres involved so the cost will be higher. 

But for commuters its gives more travel choices and may optimise bus loadings. The latter is a good thing about simple routes like the 536 - since it goes directly between stations, buses going both directions are useful in both the morning and afternoon peak. Network A strengthens this concept by retaining (or upgrading) the 536 and straightening the 561. Network B weakens it. 


Network C attempts to revive it but adds some complexity with overlapping sections near both stations. Also through passengers (more likely shoppers and students who need to go to Coburg) would be delayed due to the backtracking. 

This isn't the first time I've looked at the Hadfield network. I also went through it back in 2011. Note though this was written when the network was smaller, eg Route 561 had not been extended into the area. 

Conclusion

What do you think about these suggested networks? All are fairly cheap with Network B probably the cheapest. Are the extra expenses of C worth it compared to B? Or would it be better to stick with the less radical A that still delivers benefits like the straightened 561 and the simplified 536? Please share your thoughts in the comments below. 

PS: An index to other useful networks is here.